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bitcoin mining profitable in the US? Where are my calculations off?

Someone tell me where my calculations are wrong. Amazon has this miner advertised:
Antminer S9 ~14.0TH/s @ .098W/GH 16nm ASIC Bitcoin Miner
So that would consume 14000*0.98=1372 watts.
Given my electricity costs (0.12 $/kwhr), I would make $8.19 for every $1 of electricity. In a month, I would make $884.
That can't be right. Where did I screw up?
Here is a python script to calculate that:
dollars_per_kwhr= 173.17 / 1390 dollars_per_btc= 6000 miner_kwatts=1.372 miner_terahashes_per_second= 14.0 network_terahashes_per_second= 9e6 block_time=600 block_reward=25 rev_dollars_per_sec= dollars_per_btc * block_reward * miner_terahashes_per_second / (network_terahashes_per_second * block_time) cost_dollars_per_sec= dollars_per_kwhr*miner_kwatts/3600 print "rev={}".format(rev_dollars_per_sec) print "cost={}".format(cost_dollars_per_sec) print "ratio={}".format(rev_dollars_per_sec/cost_dollars_per_sec) print "profit per month={}".format(3600*24*30*(rev_dollars_per_sec-cost_dollars_per_sec)) 
edit: thanks to Personthingman2. 25 vs 12.5 block reward. when I change that, my script outputs: rev=0.000194444444444 cost=4.74798641087e-05 ratio=4.09530330582 profit per month=380.93219223
This is a $4000 unit, so it pays for itself in 10 months. OK. So whether I will ever make money on this depends heavily on the growth of the network hashing rate over time, and the increase in BTC price.
edit2: I am guessing that the answer to my question is that I would be lucky for the unit to keep working long enough to pay for itself. It would likely break down before reaching that point.
submitted by SilencingNarrative to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The PHANTOM Technical Whitepaper[Version 0.1] The PHANTOM TeamPHANTOM Technical Whitepaper V2 pass2

We considered the attack strategy when the attacker tried to double the expenses by "over" the system speed. A “massive” attack means that, in order to double the expenses, the attacker tries to give the dual spending transaction a very large weight so that it will exceed the legal subtleties. When the allowed weight is unbounded, s policy is a threat to the network. As a solution, we can limit the transaction's own weight from above, or set it to a constant value. When the maximum self-priority of a transaction is m, the best attack strategy is to generate a transaction with its own weight, m, that refers to a dual-overhead transaction. When the INP is compared to the attacker's computing power, the ut flow of an "honest" transaction is large enough so that it is possible to estimate the likelihood of a double-spending transaction having a greater cumulative weight. formula). The attack method of constructing the "parasite chain" makes the height or score-based approval strategy obsolete because the attacker's site has higher value on these indexes than LE. The ultimate tangled. On the other hand, the PhantomTip selection algorithm described in Section 4.1 seems to provide protection against such attacks. The Phantom hint selection algorithm also provides extra incentives to prevent delay nodes. Resistance of F. to quantum computing It is well known that a sufficiently large quantum computer 35 can very effectively deal with problems that rely on trial and error to find a solution. Finding a "now" process, eating a bitcoin block is a good example. Since today, we must check an average of 268 non-CES to find a suitable hash that allows new blocks to be generated. (Everybody knows) TOM computer words need to handle INSTRON(N) operations to solve problems similar to the Bitcoin puzzle mentioned above. The same problem also requires INSTEM(N) operations on a classic Song computer. Therefore, the quantum computation r value is about 268 = 234 ≈ 17 billion times, which is more efficient than a classical computer on mining a bitcoin blockchain. In addition, it is worth noting that if a blockchain does not increase its difficulty, as a response to increased hash capabilities, the rate of isolated blocks will be increased. For the same reason, "heavy weight" attacks will also be more effective on quantum computers. However, as suggested in Section 4, limiting the weight from above will effectively prevent qua, as will computer attacks. This is obvious because the number of that need to be checked to find the right hash to issue a non-Ces transaction is not unreasonable. Age on Aver is about 38 years old. Therefore, the "ideal" quantum computer's efficiency gain is 34 = 81, which is quite acceptable. What's more, the algorithm used to implement the structure is such a time to find a random number. In order to obtain a wide range of applications, the applications on the chain need a platform that is flexible enough to meet the following requirements: Supporting millions of users to compete with companies such as ebay, uber, airbnb, and facebook requires high-performance technologies capable of handling tens of millions of active users. In some cases, the application may not reach a critical number of users, so a platform that can handle a large number of users is crucial. Cross-chain transaction of Free Usage Application developers of cross-chain transaction need to provide users with the flexibility to trade cross-chain transactions for free; users should not pay to use the platform or benefit from their services. A blockchain platform, which is freely available to users, may be used more widely. Developers and companies can develop effective cross-chain monetization strategies. Easy to upgrade and failback Businesses building blockchain-based applications need the flexibility to enhance the new features of their applications. The platform must support software and smart contract upgrades. All non-trivial software is affected by errors, even the most rigorous formal verification. The platform must be robust enough to fix bugs when bugs inevitably occur. Low latency A good user experience requires reliable feedback with a delay of no more than a few seconds. Longer delays can frustrate users and make applications built on the blockchain uncompetitive with existing NOs. N-block chain alternatives: the platform should support low latency for transaction latency. Due to the order-dependent steps of DPOS's large super nodes, some applications cannot implement parallel algorithms. Applications such as swaps need enough sequential performance to handle hi. Gh volume. Therefore, the platform should support fast sequential performance. Parallel performance Large applications need to divide workloads across multiple CPUs and computers. Consensus algorithm (BFT) The PHANTOM.IO software uses the only known decentralized consensus DPOS algorithm. This algorithm can satisfy the performance requirements of the application program on the blockchain, that is, the trust proof of delegation (DPO). Lander algorithm, using PHANTOM.IO software to hold tokens on the blockchain, can select block producers through a continuous approval voting system. Anyone can choose to join the block. Produce, and will have the opportunity to produce blocks, as long as they can persuade token holders to vote for them. PHANTOM.IO software allows blocks to be generated precisely every 0.5 seconds, and exactly one producer is authorized to generate blocks at any given point in time. If there is no editing time in the SCH generation block, then skip the block of that time slot. When one or more blocks are skipped, there is an interval of 0.5 or more seconds in the blockchain. Used in software, blocks are produced in n rounds (x blocks per unit, n producers per time). At the beginning of each round, n unique producers were decided by Toke's vote. n holder, the selected manufacturer arranges the order according to the agreement of n or more manufacturers. If a producer misses a block and has not produced any blocks in the past 24 hours, they will be considered to be removed from therein until they inform the blockchain that they intend to start producing blocks. Gain: it ensures that the network runs smoothly, by minimizing the number of blocks missed by the non-scheduled producers, which have proven to be unreliable. Under normal circumstances, the DPOS blockchain does not experience any bifurcation because block producers cooperate in producing blocks rather than compete. If there is a fork, the consensus will switch to the longest chain in automatic way. This method works because the speed at which blocks are added to a block fork is directly related to the percentage of block producers that share the same block. DPOS consensus: in other words, the length of the blockchain forks of more manufacturers grows faster than the lesser forks of manufacturers, because the more producers, the less the forks, and they are ignored. In addition, any block manufacturer should not produce two fork blocks at the same time. A block maker that prevents doing so is likely to be eliminated. This type of cryptographic evidence for dual production of m can also be used to automatically clear abusers. Byzantine fault tolerance was added to the traditional handicapped organization, allowing all producers to sign all blocks as long as no producer marks two blocks with the same time stamp or the same block height. A 15-minute painter has signed a block that is considered irreversible. Any Byzantine writer must sign two blocks with the same time stamp or block, resulting in treasonable cryptographic evidence. Under this model, an irreversible consensus should be reached within 1 second. Transaction confirmation A typical association of organizations of persons with disabilities has 100% of producers involved. After an average transaction time of 0.25 seconds, the transaction can be considered as confirming 99.9% certainty. In addition to disabled people's organizations, PHANTOM.IO also added asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerance (ABFT) to accelerate irreversibility. The aBFT algorithm provides 100% irreversibility confirmation within 1Seco. The software requires that each transaction contain a portion of the hash of the most recent block header. This hash provides two purposes: To prevent replay of transactions on forks that do not include reference blocks; and Signals when a particular user and their listed shares are placed on a particular fork. Over time, all users will eventually confirm the blockchain directly, which makes it difficult to fake chains because fakes cannot migrate transactions from legitimate chai. Haploid generation (code) Named permission levels For use in software, accounts can define named permission levels, and each permission level can be derived from higher level named permissions. Each named privilege level defines one privilege; one privilege is a threshold multi-signature check that consists of the keys and/or naming privilege levels of other accounts. For example, the “Friends” permission level on the account can be set to be controlled equally by any friend of the account. Another example is the Steem blockchain, which has three hard-coded named permission levels: owner, activity and release. Delivery licenses can only perform social actions such as voting and post-processing, while Active permissions can do everything except change the owner. The owner's permission is for refrigerated and can do all things. The PHANTOM.IO software allows each account holder to define their own hierarchy and grouping of actions. Permission mapping The PHANTOM.IO software allows each account to define the mapping between any other account's contracts/operations or contracts and their own named permission levels. For example, account holders can map ac. The counting holder's social media applies for the account holder's "friend" permission group. With this map, any friend can post the account holder’s identity on the account holder’s social media. Even numbers, they will put their account holders, they still use their own keys to sign the action. This means that it is always possible to determine which friends use the account and how to use it. Evaluation authority When an action of "Action" is passed, the PHANTOM.IO software will first check whether Alicepc's permission map. If nothing is then mapping. If no more matches are found, the map is assumed to point to the named permission group Once the mapping is identified, the threshold multi-signature process and the rights associated with the naming authority verify the signature authority. If it fails, it will move upwards. Go to parent permissions and eventually point to owner permissions. Default permission group The technology also allows all accounts to have an "Owner" group that can complete all tasks, and can do any "Activity" group other than changing the owner group. All other permission groups S are derived from "activity". Parallel Computing of Permission The permission evaluation process is "read-only" and changes to the permissions of the transaction do not take effect until the end of the block. This means that all keys and permission calculation transactions can be executed in parallel. In addition, it means that you can quickly verify permissions without starting expensive application logic, and these logic must be rolled back. Finally, it means that transaction privileges can be evaluated when pending transactions are received without having to re-evaluate them when applied. For all things considered, privilege validation represents a significant percentage of the calculations needed to validate transactions, making this a read-only and trivial parallel process can greatly improve performance. When replaying to regenerate a deterministic state from the operation log, there is no need to re-evaluate the rights. The block of facts contained in the known product is sufficient to skip this step, which greatly reduces the computational load associated with replaying a growing blockchain. Actions of mandatory delays Time is a key component of security. In most cases, it is not possible to know if the private key has been stolen until it is used. Time-based security is used when people have applications that require a key to be stored on a computer connected to the Internet for daily use. PHANTOM.IO software enables application developers to indicate certain operations that must wait for the minimum value of each operation, and they can be applied after being included in a block. During this time, they can be cancelled. When these operations are broadcasted, users can receive notifications via email or text messages. If they are not authorized, then they can use the account recovery process to restore their account d withdrawal actions. The delay required depends on how sensitive the operation is. Buying coffee may not be delayed and is irreversible within a few seconds, while buying a house may require a 72-hour clean-up time. It may take up to 30 days for the entire account to be handed over to the new control. The actual delay is chosen by the application developer and the user. Application deterministic parallel execution Blockchain consensus depends on deterministic (repeatable) behavior. It means that all parallel executions must be freed from the use of mutexes or other locking primitives. Without locks, there must be some way to ensure that transactions that can be executed in parallel do not produce ambiguous results. Software designed in 2018 will run a single thread, but it contains the data structures necessary for future multithreaded, parallel execution. Based on PHANTOM.IO software, once the parallel operation is enabled, the task of the block manufacturer is to transfer the actions to independent fragments so that they can be evaluated. The schedule is the output of the block producer and will be executed, but the process of generating the schedule is not deterministic. This means that block producer S can use parallel algorithms to schedule transactions. When part of the parallel execution means that when a script generates a new Action, it will not be delivered immediately, but it plans to deliver it in the next cycle. The reason is that it cannot be Ivered immediately because the receiver may actively modify its state in another fragment. Minimum communication delay Delay is the time it takes for receiving a response after an account sending an Action to another account. The goal is to enable two accounts to exchange operations back and forth in a single block. There is no need to wait 0.5 seconds between each action. To achieve this, PHANTOM.IO software divides each block into loops. Each loop is divided into fragments and each fragment contains a trans-list of actions. Each transaction contains a set of operations to be delivered. This structure can be visualized as a tree in which alternating layers are processed sequentially and in parallel. Region Cycle (order) Fragments (parallel) Transaction (order) Action (order) Receiver and notification account (parallel) Transactions generated in one cycle can be delivered in any subsequent cycle or block. The block generator will always add a loop to the block until the maximum wall-clock time passes or there is no n. EW generates the transaction to be delivered. You can use static analysis of blocks to verify that in a given period, no two fragments contain transactions that modify the same account. As long as the invariants remain unchanged, the block ca will remain unchanged. n Processes by running all fragments in parallel. Read-only operation handler Some accounts may be able to handle a pass/fail based operation without modifying their internal state. If this is the case, these handlers can be executed in parallel as long as they are read only. The Ly operation handler for a particular account is contained in one or more shards within a specific period. Multi-account atomic transactions Sometimes it is necessary to ensure that actions are delivered and accepted by multiple accounts. In this case, both operations are placed in one transaction and two accounts will be allocated. The same pieces and actions apply in sequence. Non-equilibrium partial evaluation Scale block chain technology requires that the components be modular. Everyone doesn't have to run everything, especially if they only need to use a small part of the application. Exchange application developers run full nodes to display Exchange status to users. This exchange application does not require the status associated with social media. The software allows any full node to select any subset of applications to run. If the application never depends on stat, operations passed to other applications will be safely ignored. Subjective best effort scheduling The software cannot force the vendor to pass any action to any other account. Each block producer makes its own subjective measurement of computational complexity and time. This applies to whether a transaction is generated by a user or automatically generated by a smart contract. In the boot blockchain using PHANTOM.IO software, at the network level, all transactions count toward the computational bandwidth cost based on the number of WASM instructions executed. However, each block producer using the software can use its own algorithms and metrics to calculate resource usage. When a block producer concludes that a deal or account has consumed a prop. When generating their own blocks, they simply reject the transaction; however, if other block producers consider the transaction, they will still process the transaction. In general, as long as a block producer considers a transaction to be valid, and all other block producers accept it under resource use restrictions, it may take 1 minute to find the producer's transaction. In some cases, the producer may create a block that contains a transaction that is out of the acceptable range. In this case, the next block producer may choose to reject block D. The tie will be broken by the third producer. This is no different from what would happen if a large block caused network propagation delays. The society has noticed a pattern of abuse. Remove ballots from hooligan producers. This subjective evaluation of computational costs has forced people to accurately measure the time to run. With this design, there is no need for PRESI. Calculating directives greatly increases the opportunity for optimization without breaking the consensus. Proof of integrity When using the proof of Merkle from an external blockchain, there is a big difference between knowing that all transactions are valid and knowing that no transactions have been skipped or OMI. Although it is impossible to prove that all the recent transactions are known, it can be proved that there are no loopholes in the history of the transaction. PHANTOM.IO Software Tool is achieved by assigning a serial number to each operation passed to each account. Users can use these serial numbers to prove that all operations for a specific account have been processed. And they are processed in order. Conclusions PHANTOM.IO software is designed based on proven concepts and best practices and represents the basic progress of blockchain technology. The software is part of the overall blueprint. For a blockchain society with global scalability, decentralized applications can be easily deployed and managed.
submitted by phantomusa to 195 [link] [comments]

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